Transactions on Transport Sciences, 2014 (vol. 7), issue 4
Mature Vegetation along Roads
O. Hykš, K. Neubergová
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):117-124 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0009
The article deals with the issue of vegetation, particularly mature vegetation, along transport routes. Since rather heated discussions on this topic have recently appeared, particularly in relation to road safety, the authors of this article decided to present this issue in wider context and from various viewpoints. The starting point for this issue is mentioned in the introduction. The next part deals with the history of planting tree alleys in the Czech Republic. Subsequently, a brief summary of advantages and drawbacks of mature vegetation along transport routes is presented. The next part of the article discusses the environmental bases and, last...
Optimization of Measures to Prevent Collisions of Animals and Road Traffic
J. Martolos, T. Šikula, T. Libosvár, P. Anděl
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):125-134 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0010
The movement of animals on roads often causes a collision with vehicles. This not only results in the loss of animal population, but also in social losses - consequences of road accidents. This issue can be dealt with by restricting the movement of animals across roads - most commonly by fencing along roads in combination with construction of overpasses for safe crossing over roads. However, these measures also have their drawbacks - fragmentation of landscape, costs on construction and maintenance. These measures should be designed on the basis of an analysis of migration routes of animals, migration potential of an area (and thus increased movement...
Innovative Tools of Sustainable Mobility in European Urban Areas: Experience with Evaluation and Role of Political Barriers
H. Brůhová-Foltýnová, R. Jordová
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):135-142 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0011
The presented article describes a European initiative for supporting innovative measures in sustainable transport in urban areas Civitas, particularly its latest completed edition Civitas Plus (2008-2012). The article presents the evaluation process of the performed measures and shows an overview of the main obstacles the Civitas Plus cities struggled with (with the emphasis on political barriers). In addition, it mentions drivers which helped to implement the sustainable mobility measures. It concludes with examples from European cities on how to avoid these barriers and prevent their occurrence.
Air Pollution by Gases and PM in Rural Areas
D. Jandačka, D. Ďurčanská
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):143-152 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0012
Pollution of the air by gases (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and particulate matter is a matter of everyday life. Particulate matter (PM) is one of hazardous pollutants causing deterioration of the environment and thus quality of life of the population. Long-term exposure to effects of increased concentrations of gaseous pollutants can also cause deterioration of the environment and human health. Particulate matter and gases production by road transport is a burning issue, particularly for larger urban areas. However, pollution also occurs outside urban areas from different sources (road transport) that primarily affect vegetation...
Environmentally Friendly Public Transport
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):153-160 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0013
The article "Environmentally Friendly Public Transport" deals with the impact of public transport on the environment by selected types of vehicles. Nowadays, many public transport operators face the necessity to renew their vehicle fleets and consequently decide how to acquire the best vehicle fleet composition with the lowest costs. They need to be competitive with other operators as well as with personal car transport; they need to provide sufficient comfort to passengers, be environmentally friendly, and last but not least, they need to have low operating costs. The renewal of the vehicle fleet traditionally strains an operator's budget. A good...
Dispersion of Pollutants from Line Sources in Small Municipalities
J. Pospíšil, J. Huzlík, R. Ličbinský
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):161-168 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0014
The article deals with the issue of dispersion and spreading of pollutants in small municipalities. The main attention is paid to the spreading of pollutants from line sources, i.e. roads in this case. Numerical modelling for selected localities, complemented with local measurements, is used for finding relations of dispersion of pollutants. The impact of a specific layout of urban areas on the dispersion of pollutants is monitored. Line sources, representing roads in numerical models, are described by the productions of pollutants and corresponding aerodynamic effects of moving vehicles on the ambient air. A large number of concentration maps are...
Development and Changes in Characteristics of Infiltration and Retention Facilities for Transport Infrastructure and Paved Area Surface Run-off Treatment
M. Rozkošný, R. Novotný, D. Beránková, M. Kriška, T. Hudcová
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2014, 7(4):169-178 | DOI: 10.2478/trans-2014-0015
The paper presents the results of water quality monitoring of road and parking surface run-off, which was done in the city of Brno in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014. The main results of the effectiveness of retention and infiltration facility treatment for PAH, petroleum substances, chlorides and selected heavy metals are presented, too. The system of facilities was built for a parking place located in Brno-Bohunice (Masaryk University campus). A retention basin was built near a shopping centre in Brno. The results of analyses and field measurements allow for comparing the evolution and changes of the filtration media characteristics, treatment effectiveness...