Transactions on Transport Sciences, 2012 (vol. 5), issue 4

Experience from In-depth Analysis of Road Accidents

J. Andres, S. Kratochvílová, J. Křenek, J. Rücker, K. Poláčková, B. Turošíková, J. Frič, L. Plánka, M. Krtička

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):171-178 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0019-y

Official road accident statistics are, in most countries, not sufficiently detailed to allow an in-depth analysis of accidents. In-depth studies try to provide a detailed reconstruction of events that lead to accidents and to identify the factors that caused injuries. According to Elvik (2010), the purpose of performing in-depth analyses of accidents is both to understand factors leading to accidents and to identify the best way to prevent accidents. In-depth studies of fatal accidents have a long history in Finland (VALT, 2004) and the United Kingdom (Staughton & Storie, 2000), but have more recently been introduced in Sweden (Sagberg & Assum,...

Kinematic Analysis of Backward Falls of Pedestrian and Figurine in Relation to Head Injury

O. Fanta, P. Kubový, F. Lopot, B. Pánková, K. Jelen

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):179-188 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0020-5

Unexpected backward falls caused by a vehicle at a pedestrian crossing or at a supermarket parking space, by slipping on the road or by an external force acting against the chest followed by a backward fall is a very frequent phenomenon and can affect anyone. Especially the back and temporal part of the head come into contact with the ground during this uncontrolled motion and, depending on the impact strength and surface properties, it can cause serious injury. This study addresses a kinematic analysis of probands' backward fall (voluntary fall, chest impact fall, slipping fall) and correlates it with dummy-based data and subsequently with data from...

Lowering the Impact of Aviation on Global Earth's Radiation Balance

J. Hospodka

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):189-194 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0021-4

This paper discusses the possible involvement of contrail radiation in the scheme of the EU ETS to decrease aviation impact on the global Earth's radiation balance. The main goal of this involvement should be the lowering of aviation radiation balance without any further costs for aviation operators. This fact should encourage further research of this possibility due to this being a "win - win" scenario. Lowering the aviation impact on the radiation balance with lower costs than only the charges dependent on the EU ETS scheme, which nowadays covers only emissions of CO2.

Monitoring of the Damage Evolution in Reinforced Concrete Girder by Means of Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy

M. Kořenská, M. Manychová, L. Pazdera, K. Pospíšil

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):195-204 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0022-3

Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) is a package of advanced methods of ultrasonic spectroscopy which make it possible to capture with a high level of sensitivity the formation and development of structure damage even in materially, as well as geometrically, highly complicated specimens. Concrete and reinforced concrete are classical examples of materials to which the application of conventional ultrasonic methods is very complicated. This is why they make an ideal medium for the application of non-linear ultrasonic methods. The object of this experimental study consists of the application of nonlinear ultrasonic testing to assess the structural...

Groundwater Contamination Caused by Road Construction Materials

R. Ličbinský, J. Huzlík, I. Provalilová, V. Jandová, M. Ličbinská

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):205-214 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0023-2

Materials used for the construction of roads can represent one of the sources of environmental pollution. In this respect, especially the water migrating in the road body can be contaminated by pollutants released from these materials. This paper presents the results of a study focused on the leaching of compounds from materials used for road construction. At localities with older pavement surfaces, concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) detected in samples from different body layers were highest in the layer subjacent to the asphalt pavement surface and decreased in the direction to underlying layers. The highest concentrations of PAHs...

Value of Travel Time Savings in the Context of Leisure Travel in the Czech Republic

P. Šenk, S. Biler, A. Daňková

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):215-222 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0024-1

This paper presents the results of a study focused on the estimation of the value of travel time savings in the context of long distance leisure travel by car. The study refers to the concept of willingness-to-pay for the reduction of travel time. Data on choice behavior were collected by means of a stated preference survey on a representative sample of the population in the Czech Republic and analyzed using methods of discrete choice analysis.
Results of the study suggest that, in case of the most common type of long distance leisure trips - weekend trips, estimated values of travel time savings obtained by the above mentioned methods are consistent...

Use of Accident Prediction Models in Identifying Hazardous Road Locations

P. Šenk, J. Ambros, P. Pokorný, R. Striegler

Transactions on Transport Sciences 2012, 5(4):223-232 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-012-0025-0

The paper introduces the possibility of using accident prediction models for the identification of hazardous road locations. The application of this method is presented with an example of secondary rural roads in the South Moravian region which are classified into road segments homogeneous in terms of basic geometric and traffic characteristics. The prediction model is represented by a generalized linear model which, on the basis of the available data, determines the expected number of accidents for individual types of road segments. A critical road segment is defined as a segment where the reported number of accidents significantly exceeds the number...