Transactions on Transport Sciences, 2011 (vol. 4), issue 4
GNSS Integrity for Railway Transportation
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):183-192 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0016-6
This article contains an analysis of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) integrity from a viewpoint of railway transportation. The integrity concept of functional EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) system is explained in detail and also the integrity mechanism of the future Galileo system is briefly outlined. In order to verify the theoretical conclusions, static measurements by means of EGNOS receiver in a safety mode have been performed. Selected experimental results are discussed.
Geographical Location of Depopulation Areas in the Czech Republic and its Dependence on Transport Infrastructure Part II: Case Studies
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):193-198 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0017-5
Location of settlement in important routes of transport was always one of the key factors of its prosperity. However, in the car-oriented world of today the distance factor is not so important for many people and they prefer to live in calm rural areas. Simultaneously, many rural areas in peripheral locations are affected by the emigration of inhabitants and global decay. This study explains how good transport infrastructure should be beneficial for rural areas and how it is in reality in the Czech Republic. The study is part of a larger body of research, based on the component analysis of the localization of depopulation areas in the Czech Republic...
Estimation of Accident Frequency at Newly-built Roundabouts in the Czech Republic
P. Šenk, J. Ambros
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):199-206 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0018-4
Roundabouts have become one of the most popular traffic easing and safety improving measures implemented on roads in the Czech Republic. The decision on he ealization of each new roundabout should be based on the knowledge of the expected realization costs and benefits resulting from the future operation, especially changes in traffic and safety performance. This study introduces a negative binomial regression model that enables the quantification of the safety performance of roundabouts in terms of accident frequency in relation to their traffic and geometric characteristics. Model design and estimation of parameters is based on the sample of 90 roundabouts...
Comparison of HIC Values during Train-Car Collisions
O. Fanta, M. Hybner, F. Lopot, K. Jelen, Z. Malkovský, H. Purš
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):207-216 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0021-9
Accident statistics show that a collision of a train with a car has a significant share of the number of traffic accidents. It also ranks among the most tragic. Three crash tests were made simulating the side impact of a railway vehicle with a car on a level crossing to monitor the biomechanics of possible injury. This study pays particular attention to head injuries. Head acceleration in all three axes was captured on a mannequin during an impact with Skoda Superb and Skoda Favorit vehicles. The most common head injury criterion (HIC) was selected as a quantitative indicator for comparison. It transpired that the contact of the head with an element...
Whiplash Injury and Head Injury Criterion during Deceleration
K. Jelen, O. Fanta, R. Billich, D. Hadraba, P. Kubový
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):217-224 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0022-8
Cervical spine injuries have become an urgent problem in modern society. Regardless of social status or background, the high rate of neck injuries is a serious healthcare issue worldwide. The cervical spine injury is mainly caused by external impact and is termed as whiplash injury. In addition, the head also performs a whiplash movement during rapid deceleration. The aim of this study is to monitor and describe physically the natural response of the head to rapid deceleration. The methodology of using an impact simulator was adopted for simulating a load which is applied to passengers wearing a seat belt in a head-on collision of a car at the speed...
The Role of Personality Qualities in Driving
M. Šucha, M. Seitl
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):225-232 | DOI: 10.2478/v10158-011-0019-3
The main cause of traffic accidents is the human element. This implies that the most significant traffic safety factor is the driver's behaviour and their psychological qualifications for driving (Antušek, 1998; Havlík, 2005; Stránský, 2000; Štikar, Hoskovec & Štikarová, 2003). Generally, the driver's behaviour reflects their personality characteristics and the specific situation. The present article focuses on the personality variables which, according to recent research, are particularly associated with the driving of motor vehicles. The personality characteristics, of which the understanding is important for the development of a methodology...
Technical Notes on Balloting process of selected committees of ASTM International
Transactions on Transport Sciences 2011, 4(4):233-234
The Technical Note informs about selected problems solved by ASTM International, what author considers interesting from his point of view. Comprehensive information about ASTM International can be obtained form their website www.astm.org.